Instructional programs are accredited by the International Dance Council (UNESCO). 

In the Spotlight:

Stephen M. Apatow
Biomechanics Specialist & Technical Consultant
Founder, Director of Research and Development
Sports Medicine & Science Institute

Phone: (203) 668-0282


Pathobiologics International
.  .

Sports Science: Professional and Academic Experience includes:

  • Academic: Exercise Physiology, Sports Medicine, Sabbatical 1984.
  • 1984-90: Full time training for ultra distance running, ultra-distance cycling, national & international level competition in cross country skiing and rowing.
  • 1985: Accepted to the national development camp for cycling, Olympic Training Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado.
  • 1986-89: Through the help of Tony Johnson, heavyweight rowing coach at Yale, began cross training sweep rowing and sculling with the New Haven Rowing Club.
  • Studied modern, jazz and ballet training at the Lee Lund Academy from 1985-88 and the Soviet System of Ballet Training at the Nutmeg Conservatory for the Arts from 1986-89. Graduate of the Nutmeg Conservatory for the Arts Professional Program in 1989. 
  • 1987: Presentation at Rossignol Cross Country Ski Clinic, speakers included Bill Koch and Lyle Nelson coordinated by Mike Gallagher, (former Olympian and Olympic Cross-Country Ski Coach), Mountain Top Inn, Chittenden, Vermont.
  • Martial Arts: As a participant in the study of martial arts for over 20 years, classical ballet training provided a scientific method (utilizing a similar approach used in eastern bloc development programs) to optimize speed, strength, leverage mechanics, force generation and technique. Current training emphasis is Judo/Jujitsu. Founder: JudoSport International. 
  • Technical consultant for Cheryl Madeux, Finalist, Lausanne International Ballet Competition in 1990. 
  • Technical consultant for U.S. National Team athletes from Harvard University, members of World and Olympic Festival Teams. Sports applications include professional football, national level wrestling, hockey cross-country and downhill skiing, skating and martial arts. 
  • Speaker at 1990 Coaches Association Meeting for Sport Canada at the Olympic Complex in Ottawa, Canada. 
  • Upon request, applications of the analysis correction and retraining procedures to enhance the joint flexibility and technical performance for classical ballet training have been applied to musculo-skeletal disorders that include entrapment neuropathies, Scoliosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Asthma, Fibromyalgia, Frederick's Ataxia and Multiple Sclerosis. One of our cases with Rheumatoid Arthritis was submitted to the National Arthritis Foundation Peer Review Board in 1990. Analysis and corrective procedures have been adapted to help spinal herniations for physicians at Yale Medical School. 
  • Small animal veterinary application of human biomechanics procedures leads to work with hundreds of horses in dressage, hunter-jumper and western training programs. (See: Expanding Human to Veterinary Biomechanics Applications)
  • 1994-98: Corrective procedures developed to enhance the technical ability of the international level dancer in ballet were adapted into dressage and hunter-jumper specific training programs for both horse and rider. This work was formally introduced as an equestrian development program at the USDF Adult Camp in Boise, ID in 1997. In 1998, the USDF Region V Adult Camp in Jackson Wyoming provided USDF University Credit for the lecture presentation on "Biomechanics and Structural Analysis of Both Horse and Rider." 
  • 1999: Presenter at Society of State Directors of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 1999 - Present: Research and development of programs associated with the optimization of classical ballet training, Olympic development programs and specialized orthopedic applications.
  • 2002 International Sports Science Association Fitness Therapist Review: The Science and Practice of Rehabilitative Exercise integrate theory and practice in the health care arena. This specialized field utilizes information from the world of rehabilitation, pathology, functional anatomy and physiology and blends it with the world of fitness training dealing with aerobic conditioning strength training, skill development, exercise progression and prescription for special population groups. 
  • 2003: "Optimization of Classical Ballet and Sports Development Programs" workshop was introduced at the 11 state American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) Combined Convention on February 12, 2003 in Reno-Sparks, Nevada.
  • Consultancy work with all sports and Olympic development programs continues through the Sports Medicine & Science Institute.

Armed Forces Development Programs
Sharpening the Tactical Athlete

Armed Forces Development Programs
: News, Sports Medicine Advisories, SportScience Information Network Sports Directory.
 JudoSport International: International classical biomechanics based martial arts training for Olympic development programs. Url:

Olympic and Sports Development Programs

SMSI Sportscience Index: Includes information on sports development clinics, coaches information resources, consultations and scholarships.  See also: International Dancescience Development Program.

Equestrian Development Programs

BalletEquestria: Rider & Equine Development Programs, International Dancescience Development Program. Includes articles, information on rider development clinics, consultations and scholarships.

Orthopedic Applications

Scoliosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis Asthma, Fibromyalgia, Friedreich Ataxia, Multiple Sclerosis and veterinary applications (See: Expanding Human to Veterinary Biomechanics Applications).


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AAOS Bulletin
Orthopedics Today
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
Medscape: Orthopedics & Sports Medicine
Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Journal of Biomechanics Online
Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
British Journal of Sports Medicine
Physician and SportsMedicine
Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics
Gatorade Sports Science Institute
Sports Information Resource Centre
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